The term nutrition means the introduction of various substances of organic and inorganic nature into the body, which serve to renew and build cells and tissues and which release the energy used by the body. All these substances are called by one name nutrients.
Nutrients by origin are divided into organic and inorganic.
Organic nutrients include:
Inorganic nutrients include:
The food pyramid
The energy released by nutrients is used to work internal organs, maintain body weight, metabolism, to perform mental and physical work, to grow and regenerate worn-out tissues.
Food sustains life and drives society and the individual. Without food, neither plant nor animal nor man can grow or develop. It has the ability to manage biochemical processes at the cellular level, where everything related to health begins and ends. Food has the power to stimulate the mind and lift the mood. The Greek physician Hippocrates clearly expressed the idea that “medical science would not be discovered or found at all and would not become the subject of research if the same food and drink would suit both a healthy and a sick man.” This means that without food there is no health or progress for any living being. An obvious example is the disease of children in the African country of Ghana known today in the world as KWASHIORKOR. Namely, infants were left without the proteins they receive from breast milk as soon as their mothers stopped breastfeeding. They got sick and died. Proteins from breast milk ensured the growth and development of these children, and as soon as they stopped receiving breast milk, they became ill with severe malnutrition and died.
Food has proven to be a real medicine that prevents disease and cures it.
Today, it is well known that a deficiency of certain nutrients, proteins, fats, and carbohydrates (macronutrients), as well as a deficiency of vitamins, minerals, and water (micronutrients), can cause disease. But also excessive intake of nutrients can be the cause of many diseases associated with obesity and hypervitaminosis.
From the above, we see that nutrition plays an important role in the growth and development of the organism from infancy to late adulthood. Therefore, we should develop and nurture proper eating habits from early childhood, in order to avoid the appearance of the disease in later years. If there is a disorder of any of the nutrients and this leads to a deterioration in the health of the body, we resort to a diet.
By diet, we mean all dietary measures that are carried out in order to make the body sick, regardless of the disease in question, to establish a balance between their needs as soon as possible, which are most often changed due to the disease and the number of nutrients ingested. In some diseases, diet is the basic measure of treatment and then nutrition has the role of diet therapy. In the second group of diseases (heart, kidneys, digestive organs), nutrition has a helping role because it allows the duration of the disease to be alleviated and complications to be avoided.